Author Topic: Songket Weaving Pandai Sikek (West Sumatra - Indonesia)  (Read 1826 times)


Full Member

Pandai Sikek is a region that is located in Tanah Datar, West Sumatra Province, Indonesia. In this area there is a weaving craft called "Songket Weaving Pandai Sikek". Songket weaving Pandai Sikek handicraft products are not only limited to the various kinds of garments such as shirts and headbands brackets, but also various fittings and marriage ceremonies, such as: Codec songket, saruang balapak, saruang batabua, songket shawl or scarf batabua tingkuluak tanduak (headgear women), and sesamping (prince equipment). Songket for Minangkabau society is a type of clothing that is of high value (greatly appreciated). Therefore, its use is limited to events or certain activities, such as: marriage, Batagak gala (coronation prince), and welcome important guests.

Based on the goal, weaving songket can be divided into two, namely for its own purposes and for trade. If making only for its own purposes and or relatives (relatives), it is usually done after coming home from the fields or after the housework done. However, if to be traded, then the manufacturing is done from morning to evening by the general workforce is women. Among the workers there were previously apprenticeship (learning) and then, after the master, into the workforce in the relevant place. But in general are those who have mastered the technique of making songket. Mastery or skill that is generally obtained from the parents. For the record, workers and employers songket Pandai Sikek are women because men assume that it is more suitable activities carried out by women. So, if there are men who are involved, then just help alone. Matters that are the subject is still being done by women.

1. Equipment and Materials

Pandai Sikek songket weaving equipment can be categorized into two, namely the principal and additional equipment. Both are made of wood and bamboo. Main equipment is the loom itself which is called as "panta". Set of tools measuring 2 x 1.5 meters consists of rolls (a tool used for the main weaving thread), Sisia (a tool used to stretch and obtain threads woven), pancukia (a tool used to make songket motifs , and Turak (a tool used to insert another thread to the main thread). Panta placed at a place called pamedangan (special place for weaving songket) that, in the future given the two poles that serve as a buffer timber paso. The point is for roll fabric that has been woven. Meanwhile, the definition of additional equipment is a tool that is used before and after the process of making songket. The tool is called ani bobbin and woven fabric roller.

The basic ingredients are songket weaving yarn called the warp or weft. The thread size unit called a hammer. While the decoration using yarn or thread makao India. The thread that unit size is called a pack was imported from Singapore via Tanjungpinang.

For the record, in the past when craftsmen want a certain color, it will be colored yarn was dipped into hot water (boiling) which has been given a specific color, and then dried. At the present time only a few people do that. Most of them buy the threads that have been manufactured by a factory.

2. Weaving Techniques

Songket weaving is done in two stages. The first stage is the basic fabric weaving with flat or plain weave construction. The way the threads that will be used as the base fabric (woven) is connected to the paso. The position of this longitudinal threads Sikek Pandai community called "thread tagak". After that, the threads are stretched with a tool called palapah.
At the time of inserting threads transverse direction, the thread tagak stretched with a tool called palapah. Entry threads transverse direction becomes relatively easy because they assisted with pancukia with certain count will be made according to motives. After that, craftsmen move Karok by stepping on one tijak-panta to separate the threads such that when the weft yarn wound on Rhenald contained in or Turak skoci can be inserted easily, either from left to right (passing the entire field Karok) or from right to left (in turn). Thread transverse position tighten up with the bersuri Karok will form the base fabric.

The second stage is the manufacture of ornaments with gold thread. The technique is rather complicated because to put it into the base fabric should be through careful calculation. In this case the parts which use the warp determined by a tool called pancukie made of bamboo. That said, this work takes a long time because the warp / weft are counted one by one from right to left through a certain calculation according to the motif that will be created. Once the track was made with gold thread pancukie, then space to put Turak was enlarged with a tool called palapah. Furthermore, the gold thread tightened up one after the other, thus forming the desired decoration.

Actually, the old and the absence of making a songket, besides depending on the type of clothing that are made and the size, also subtlety and complexity of the motif. The more subtle and intricate motif, the longer the process. Making gloves and cloth for example, could take approximately one month. In fact, often more than one month for each day an average craftsman can only complete the fabric along the 5-10 centimeters.

For the record, songket should not be folded to be rolled with logs that have diameter about 5 cm. This needs to be done to keep the shape of the motive remains excellent and his gold thread is not broken, so it remains in good condition and neat.

3. Motif Songket Weaving Decorations Pandai Sikek

Basically motifs contained in Pandai Sikek songket is cukie and Sungayang. Cukie is a pattern that fills the parts of the fabric. For example, cukie for cloth body, cukie to head cloth, but cukie to the edge of the fabric or pattern, and cukie to biteh which limits among several motifs (cukie). Cukie names are generally copied from old fabrics that are still stored properly and used only when there are ceremonies, including: cukie barantai, cukie bakaluak, cukie bungo cape, cukie kaluak nails, cukie barayam pucuak rabuang, cukie barayam ropes birds, cukie kaluak, lintadu bapatah, cukie Bugis barantai, cukie bungo rice straw, ula gerang, cukie basisiak batali birds, cukie kaluak bungo sikakau, cukie Bareh randang, arai nut baakar Cino, pucuak rabuang Bajari, cukie pucuak rabuang sikakakau Bungo, Bugis cukie batali, cukie bungo sitaba, cukie rice straw, lintadu bararak, cukie kaluak babungo, cukie tread mangosteen batali, cukie barayam-gutter gutter, grind cukie sipadiah, mangosteen tupuak barantai, ducks return patang, bijo antimun and bungo Tanjuang , rope bird, bird talue, cukie kaluak ampek puluah, cukie barakar, chicken tadie weeds, cukie baayam baakar, cukie basisiak rod nut, Bareh randang and monks.

While Sungayang is the overall pattern or songket weaving cloth. The names motive Sungayang are: Saik Kalamai, Palo Fruit, Nuts Balah, Barantai Putiah, Red Barantai, Tampuak Manggih, Salapah, fireflies, fires, Cukie Baserak, Sirangkak, Simasam, and Silala Rabah.

Article Source: